Republic of Indonesia is the abbreviated RI or country in Southeast Asia, which is crossed by the equator and located between the continents of Asia and Australia as well as between the Pacific and Indian Ocean. Indonesia is the world's largest archipelagic country consisting of 13 487 islands, therefore he is also known as Nusantara ("outer islands", in addition to Java, which is considered the center) With a population of 222 million people in 2006,
Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in and the world's largest Muslim populated country in the world, although not officially an Islamic state. Indonesia is a republic form of government, the House of Representatives, Regional Representative Council and the President is elected directly. Capital city is Jakarta. Indonesia borders Malaysia on Borneo island, with Papua New Guinea on New Guinea and East Timor on the island of Timor. Other neighboring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia, and the territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands in India.
History of Indonesia is heavily influenced by other nations. Indonesia archipelago became an important trade region since at least the 7th century, when the kingdom of Palembang Srivijaya in religion and trade relations with China and India. Hindu kingdoms and Buddhism has been growing in the early centuries AD, followed by the traders who brought Islam, and various European powers fought each other to monopolize the spice trade in the Moluccas during the era of ocean exploration. Having been under Dutch rule, Indonesia which was called the Dutch East Indies declared its independence at the end of World War II. Indonesia's history has many obstacles, threats and challenges of natural disasters, corruption, separatism, a democratization process and a period of rapid economic change.
From Sabang to Merauke, Indonesia consists of various ethnic, linguistic and religious groups. The Javanese are the largest ethnic group and most politically dominant. Indonesia's national motto, "Unity in Diversity" ("It varies, but remains one"), articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Besides having a dense population and vast territory, Indonesia has a natural area that supports the second largest biodiversity in the world.
Indonesia is also a member of the UN and the only member who ever came out of the United Nations, which was on January 7, 1965, and joined again on September 28, 1966, and Indonesia and equipment are stated as a member of the 60th, the same membership since joining Indonesia on 28 September 1950. Besides The UN, Indonesia is also a member of the ASEAN, APEC, OKI, G-20 and akan become member from OECD.
History of the name of Indonesia
In 1847 in Singapore published an annual journal, the Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (JIAEA, BI: "Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia")), which is managed by James Richardson Logan (1819-1869), a Scotsman who earned his bachelor of law from the University of Edinburgh. Then in 1849 a British ethnologist nation, George Samuel Windsor Earl (1813-1865), joined as editor of the magazine JIAE A.
In 1850, JIAEA volume IV, pages 66-74, Earl wrote an article On the Leading Characteristics of the Papuan, Australian and Malay-Polynesian Nations ("The Leading Characteristics of Papua Nations, Australia and the Malay-Polynesian"). Earl in the article confirms that the time has come for the people of the Indian Archipelago or Malay Archipelago to have a unique name (a distinctive name), it is not appropriate for the Indian name and is often confused with another mention of India. Earl put forward two options name: Indunesia or Malayunesia ("nesos" in Greek means "island"). On page 71 an article was written (translated to Indonesian from English):
"... Residents of the Indian Archipelago or Malay Archipelago each will be" The Indunesia "or" People Malayunesia "".
Earl himself has said choosing a name Malayunesia (Malay Archipelago) than Indunesia (Indian Islands), because Malayunesia very appropriate for the Malay race, while Indunesia can also be used to Ceylon (as Sri Lanka time) and the Maldives (as foreign to the Maldives Islands). Earl also argues that the language used throughout the Malay archipelago. In writing the Earl's use of the term and not use the term Malayunesia Indunesia.
In Volume IV JIAEA also, pages 252-347, James Richardson Logan write an article The Ethnology of the Indian Archipelago ("Ethnology of the Indian Archipelago"). In early writings, Logan also stated the need to name specific to the islands of our homeland, because the term Indian Archipelago ("Indian Islands") is too long and confusing. Logan then picked up the name of Earl Indunesia discarded, and replaced with the letter u letter o that his words better. Thus was born the term Indonesia.
And it proves that some people still believe that the European population in the Indian archipelago, an epithet which is maintained because it was already familiar in Europe.
Indonesia for the first time the word appears in the world with the printed text on page 254 in Logan (translated into Bahasa Indonesian):
"Mr. Earl suggested the term ethnography" Indunesian ", but reject it and support the" Malayunesian ". I prefer a purely geographical term" Indonesia ", which is only a shorter synonym for the islands of the Indian or Indian Islands"
When proposing the name "Indonesia" Logan does not seem to realize that in the future the name will be the official name. Since then Logan has consistently used the name "Indonesia" in scientific writings, and the use of this term is slowly spreading among scientists fields of ethnology and geography.
In 1884 the professor of ethnology at the University of Berlin named Adolf Bastian (1826-1905) published a book Indonesien oder die Inseln Malayischen Archipel des ("Indonesia or islands in the Malay Archipelago") as many as five volumes, containing the results of his research when it wanders the islands in 1864 until 1880. Bastian is the book that popularized the term "Indonesia" among the Dutch scholar, so that could arise assumption that the term "Indonesia" Bastian's creation. Opinion that is not true that, among others listed in the Encyclopedie van Nederlandsch-Indie 1918. In fact, Bastian took the term "Indonesia" is from the writings of Logan.
Natives who first used the term "Indonesia" is Suwardi Suryaningrat (Ki Hajar Dewantara). When discharged to the Netherlands in 1913 he established a press office with the name Indonesische Persbureau.
Indonesisch name (Dutch pronunciation for "Indonesia") is also introduced as a substitute Indies ("Ocean") by Prof. Cornelis van Vollenhoven (1917). Correspondingly, inlander ("native") is replaced by Indonesians ("Indonesian").